Alphabetical Listing of Known or Suspected Carcinogens

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Hundreds of chemicals are capable of inducing cancer in humans or animals after prolonged or excessive exposure. There are many well-known examples of chemicals that can cause cancer in humans. The fumes of the metals cadmium, nickel, and chromium are known to cause lung cancer. Vinyl chloride causes liver sarcomas. Exposure to arsenic increases the risk of skin and lung cancer. Leukemia can result from chemically induced changes in bone marrow from exposure to benzene and cyclophosphamide, among other toxicants. Other chemicals, including benzo[a]pyrene and ethylene dibromide, are considered by authoritative scientific organizations to be probably carcinogenic in humans because they are potent carcinogens in animals. Chemically-induced cancer generally develops many years after exposure to a toxic agent. A latency period of as much as thirty years has been observed between exposure to asbestos, for example, and incidence of lung cancer.

A
A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)
Acetaldehyde
Acetamide
Acetochlor
2-Acetylaminofluorene
Acifluorfen
Acridine
Acrolein
Acrylamide
Acrylonitrile
Actinomycin D
Adriamycin (Doxorubicin hydrochloride)
AF-2;[2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)]acrylamide
Aflatoxins
Agaritine
Alachlor
Aldrin
Allyl chloride
Allyl glycidyl ether
Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isovalerate
Aluminium products
2-Aminoanthraquinone
p-Aminoazobenzene
o-Aminoazotoluene [solvent yellow 3]
4-Aminobiphenyl (4-aminodiphenyl)
3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole hydrochloride
1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone
Amitrole
Ammonium dichromate
Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin
Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
Aniline
ortho-Anisidine
ortho-Anisidine hydrochloride
para-anisidine
anthanthrene
Antimony oxide (antimony trioxide)
Aramite
Arsenic (inorganic arsenic compounds)
Asbestos
Auramine
Azaserine
Azathioprine
Azacitidine
Azobenzene
Azathioprine

B
Benz[a]anthracene
Benzene
Benzidine [and its salts]
Benzidine-based dyes
Benzo[b]fluoranthene
Benzo[j]fluoranthene
Benzo[k]fluoranthene
Benzofuran
Benzo[a]pyrene
Benzotrichloride
Benzyl chloride
Benzyl violet 4B
Beryllium and beryllium compounds
Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2- naphthylamine (Chlornapazine)
Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) (Carmustine)
Bis(chloromethyl)ether and technical-grade chloromethyl methyl ether
Bitumens, extracts of steam-refined and air refined
Bleomycins
Bracken fern
Bromodichloromethane
2-bromoethyl ether
Bromoform
1,3-Butadiene
1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (Busulfan, myleran)
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
t-butyl methyl ether
beta-Butyrolactone

C
Cadmium and cadmium compounds
Caffeic acid
Captafol
Captan
Carbazole
Carbon tetrachloride
Carbon-black extracts
Carrageenan, degraded
Ceramic fibers (airborne particles of respirable size)
Chlorambucil
Chloramphenicol
chlorbenzilat
Chlordane
Chlordecone (Kepone)
Chlordimeform
Chlorendic acid
Chlorinated Parrafins
alpha-Chlorinated toluenes
p-Chloroaniline
Chlormadinone aceate
Chlornaphazine[n,n-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine]
Chlorodibromomethane
Chloroethane (ethyl chloride)
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) (Lomustine)
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (Methyl-CCNU)
Chloroform
Chloromethyl methyl ether
3-Chloro-2-methylpropene
4-Chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine
p-Chloro-o-toluidine
Chlorophenols
Chlorophenoxy herbicides
Cloroprene
Chlorothalonil
Chlorozotocin
Chromium
Chromium (hexavalent compounds)
Chrysene
C.I. Acid Red 114
C.I. Basic Red 9 monohydrochloride
Ciclosporin (Cyclosporin A; Cyclosporine)
Cinnamyl anthranilate
Cisplatin
Citrus Red No. 2
Clofibrate
Coal gasification products
Coal-tars and pitches
Cobalt metal powder
Cobalt (II) chloride
Cobalt [II] oxide
Conjugated estrogens
Copper acetoarsenite
Creosotes
Crystal violet
para-Cresidine
Cupferron
Cycasin
Cyclamates
1,4-cyclohexadiene
Cyclophosphamide (anhydrous)
Cyclophosphamide (hydrated)

D
D&C Orange No. 17
D&C Red No. 8
D&C Red No. 9
D&C Red No. 19
Dacarbazine
Daminozide
Dantron (Chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone)
dapsone
Daunomycin
DCM
DDD (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)
DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene)
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
DDVP (Dichlorvos)
Decabromodiphenyl ether
N,N'-Diacetylbenzidine
2,4-Diaminoanisole
2,4-Diaminoanisole sulfate
4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether (4,4'-Oxydianiline)
2,4-Diaminotoluene
Diaminotoluene (mixed)
Dibenz[a,h]acridine
Dibenz[a,j]acridine
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene
7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene
Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene
Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
1,2-Dibromoethane
2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol
p-Dichlorobenzene
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride
1,4-Dichloro-2-butene
3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether
1,1-Dichloroethane
1,2-Dichloroethane
Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride)
1,2-Dichloropropane
1,3-Dichloropropene
Dieldrin
Dienestrol
Diepoxybutane
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
1,2-Diethylhydrazine
Diethyl sulfate
DES, Diethylstilbestrol
Diglycidyl resorcinol ether (DGRE)
Dihydrosafrole
Diisopropyl sulfate
3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (ortho-Dianisidine)
3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride (ortho-dianisidine dihydrochloride)
para-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]-1,3,4- oxadiazole
7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene
3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (ortho-Tolidine)
3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)
1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
Dimethyl sulfate
Dimethylvinyl Chloride
2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene
1,6-Dinitropyrene
1,8-Dinitropyrene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
2,6-Dinitrotoluene
1,4-Dioxane
1,2-diphenylhydrazine (hydrazobenzene)
Diphenylhydantoin (Phenytoin)
Diphenylhydantoin (Phenytoin), sodium salt
Direct Black 38
Direct Blue 6
Direct Brown 95
Disperse Blue 1

E
Epichlorohydrin
Erionite
Estradiol 17B
Estrogens (not conjugated)

Estradiol-17
Estrone
Ethinylestradiol
Mestranol
Estrone
Ethinylestradiol
Ethyl acrylate
Ethyl methanesulfonate
Ethyl-4,4'-dichlorobenzilate
Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)
N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea
Ethylene oxide
Ethylene thiourea
Ethyleneimine

F
Folpet
Formaldehyde (gas or aqueous solution)
2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl) thiazole
Furan
Furazolidone
Furmecyclox
Fusarin C

G
Glasswool fibers (airborne particles of respirable size)
Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2- a:3', 2'-d]imidazole)
Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole)
Glycidaldehyde
Glycidol
Griseofulvin
Gyromitrin (Acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone)

H
HC Blue 1
Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorocyclohexanes
Hexachlorodibenzodioxin
Hexachloroethane
Hexamethylphosphoramide
Hydrazine
Hydrazine dihydrobromide
Hydrazine sulfate
Hydroquinone
Hydroxybutyric acid lactone

I
Indeno [1,2,3-cd]pyrene
Indium trichloride
IQ (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
Iron dextran complex
Isosafrole

K
Kepone (Chlordecone)

L
Lactofen
Lasiocarpine
Lead
Lead acetate
Lead phosphate
Lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers

M
Mancozeb
Maneb
Me-A-alpha-C (2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2, 3-b]indole)
Medroxyprogesterone acetate
MeIQ(2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
MeIQx(2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline)
Melphalan
Merphalan
Mestranol
2-Methylaziridine (Propyleneimine)
Methylazoxymethanol
Methylazoxymethanol acetate
3-Methylcholanthrene
5-Methylchrysene
4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)
4,4'-Methylene bis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine
4,4'-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline)
4,4'-Methylenedianiline
4,4'-Methylenedianiline dihydrochloride
Methylhydrazine and its salts
Methyl chloromethyl ether
Methyl-CCNU
Methyl iodide
Methyl methanesulfonate
2-Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone
N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea
N-Methylolacrylamide
Methylthiouracil
Metiram
Metronidazole
Michler's ketone
Mineral Oils, untreated and mildly treated
Mirex
Mitomycin C
MOPP
Monocrotaline
5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitro-fufurylidene)-amino]-2-oxazolidinone
Mustard gas

N
Nafenopin
1-Naphthylamine
2-Naphthylamine
3-Naphthylamine
Nickel and certain nickel compounds
Nickel carbonyl
Nickel subsulfide
Niridazole
Nitrilotriacetic acid
Nitrilotriacetic acid, trisodium salt monohydrate
5-Nitroacenaphthene
5-Nitro-o-anisidine
o-Nitroanisole
4-Nitrobiphenyl
6-Nitrochrysene
Nitrofen
2-Nitrofluorene
Nitrofurazone
1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-imidazollidinone
1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)-N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2 thiazolyl]acetamide
Nitrogen mustard (Mechlorethamine)
Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride (Mechlorethamine hydrochloride)
Nitrogen mustard N-oxide
Nitrogen mustard N-oxide hydrochloride
2-Nitropropane
4-Nitropyrene
N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
N-Nitrosodiethylamine
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
p-Nitrosodiphenylamine
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea
3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile
4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine
N-Nitroso-N-methylurea
N-Nitroso-N-methylurethane
N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine
N-Nitrosomorpholine
N-Nitrosonornicotine
N-Nitrosopiperidine
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
N-Nitrososarcosine
Norethisterone (Norethindrone)

O
Ochratoxin A
Oestrogen, nonstreoidal
Oestrogen, steroidal
Oil Orange SS
4,4'-Oxydianiline
Oxadiazon
Oxymetholone
Oxazepam

P
Panfuran S
Pentachlorophenol
Perylene
Phenacetin
Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
Phenesterin
Phenobarbital
Phenolphthalein
Phenoxybenzamine
Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
Phenyl glycidyl ether
Phenylhydrazine and its salts
o-Phenylphenate, sodium
2-phenylphenol
Phenytoin
PhiP(2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine)
Polybrominated biphenyls
Polychlorinated biphenyls
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Polygeenan
Ponceau MX
Ponceau 3R
Potassium bromate
Potassium dichromate
Procarbazine
Procarbazine hydrochloride
Procymidone
Progesterone
Progestins
1,3-Propane sultone
Progargite
beta-Propiolactone
Propylene oxide
Propylthiouracil
Pyridinium chlorochromate

R
Radionuclides
Radon
Reserpine
Residual (heavy) fuel oils
Rhodamine 101

S
Saccharin
Saccharin, sodium
Safrole
Selenium sulfide
Shale-oils
Silica, crystalline (airborne particles of respirable size)
Sodium chromate tetrahydrate
Sodium dichromate
Sodium hexafluoroarsenate(V)
Sodium ortho-phenylphenate
Sterigmatocystin
Streptozotocin
Strontium chromate
Styrene
Styrene oxide
Sulfallate
Sulfur trioxide
Sulphur trioxide N,N-dimethylformamide complex

T
Talc containing asbestiform fibers
Terrazole
Testosterone and its esters
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD)
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)
p-a,a,a-Tetrachlorotoluene
3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine
Tetranitromethane
Thioacetamide
4,4'-Thiodianiline
Thiourea
Thorium dioxide
Tobacco, oral use of smokeless products
Tobacco smoke
Toluene diisocyanate
p-toluenesulphonic acid
ortho-Toluidine
ortho-Toluidine hydrochloride
para-Toluidine
Toxaphene
Treosulfan (Tresoluphan)
Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride)
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
1,2,3-Trichloropropane
Triphenyltin hydroxide
Trichloroethylene
Tris(aziridinyl)-para-benzoquinone (Triaziquone)
Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide (Thiotepa)
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate
Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate
TRIZMA base
Trp-P-1 (Tryptophan-P-1) (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)
Trp-P-2 (Tryptophan-P-2) (3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)
Trypan blue

U
Uracil mustard
Urethane (Ethyl carbamate)
V
Vinyl bromide
Vinyl chloride
4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene diepoxide (Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide)
n-vinyl pyrollidone
Vinyl pivalate
Vinyl trichloride (1,1,2-Trichloroethane)

X
2,6-Xylidine (2,6-Dimethylaniline)

Z
Zineb

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