What are the similarities and differences between cancer cells and normal cells?
How do you turn cancer cells into normal, healthy cells?
Biochemistry and Biophysics of Cancer Cells and Normal Cells.
What are the similarities and differences between cancer cells and normal cells? The body is made up of trillions of living cells. These cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. This process is tightly regulated and is controlled by the DNA machinery within the cell. Cancer is a disease of the cells in the body. Opinions of researchers: cancer cells originate from normal cells when their DNA is damaged; DNA damage may be inherited from parents or may be a spontaneous problem that occurs during the lifetime of a person; cancer is essentially a genetic disease; each cancer is different according to its biology and pathophysiology; cancers are exceptionally heterogeneous entities; every type of cancer has its own rules. Jesse Greenstein (Biochemistry of Cancer, New York, 1954) formulated the ‘convergence hypothesis’ of cancer, which states that the enzymatic activity of malignant neoplasms tends to converge to a common pattern. Today, researchers formulate the concept of the clonal evolution of cancer cell populations. Tumors can be thought of as 'continents' populated by multiple cellular species. According to the Ferromagnetic Cancer Theory (Theory from The Old Testament), cells obey the same laws of chemistry and physics that determine the behavior of nonliving systems. The structure and physical properties of any cell must ultimately be described by the known laws of chemistry and physics. Any cell is a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that have local magnetic contacts. Cancers destroy people, animals and even plants by intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can magnetically (and chaotically): 1) distort DNA (deletions, amplifications and point mutations); 2) shift chromosomes (chromosomal translocations and inversions; duplications or losses of whole chromosomes); 3) attract intracellular atoms, molecules and nanoobjects (suppress mitochondrial, lysosomal and other enzymes). ‘Intracellular magnetic chaos’ creates exceptional heterogeneity and enzymatic abnormalities within cancer cells. Some cancer cells are ‘immortal beings with suspicious lysosomes’. Lysosomes (‘suicide-bags’) are cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes. Otto Warburg argued, cancer should be interpreted as a type of mitochondrial disease. In 1966 Otto Warburg delivered a lecture in which he stated that cancer prevention and treatment should focus on the administration of respiratory enzymes and co-factors, such as iron and the B vitamins. Today, researchers know that cancers are characterized by extensive genomic instability, which can be detected among any histological subtypes and among different foci within a tumor. The genomic changes occur at different levels, from mutations in single or few nucleotides to gains or losses of entire chromosomes or large chromosome regions. The known laws of chemistry and physics describe any normal cell as cell with non-numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles; any cancer cell as cell with numerous superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Anti-iron methods of The Old Testament can beat any cancer (intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic 'infection'). http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/35502/ ; http://encognitive.com/node/18553 ; http://www.encognitive.com/node/2789 ; ENCOGNITIVE.COM & Medical News Today & Vadim Shapoval
Answer by Shapoval
What are the similarities and differences between breast cancer cells and normal breast cells? Breast Cancer and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Iron Conception). Breast cancer is a tumor that has become malignant - it has developed from the breast cells. Breast cancer cells are more likely to spread to certain parts of the body than others. Breast cancer cells travelling in the lymphatic system can spread to lymph nodes anywhere in the body. The main breast cancer treatment options may include: radiation therapy (radiotherapy), surgery [scalpel blades are usually made of hardened and tempered steel, stainless steel, or high carbon steel; in addition, titanium, CERAMIC, diamond and even obsidian knives are not uncommon], biological therapy (targeted drug therapy), hormone therapy and chemotherapy. Breast cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide. According to the Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Theory from The Old Testament), any cancer is a subtle iron disease. Any human cell should be interpreted as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Normal breast cells are cells with NON-NUMEROUS intracellular superparamagnetic, ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles (breast cancer cells - with NUMEROUS). Breast cancer should be interpreted as intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic ‘infection’. Cancer researchers can successfully destroy breast cancer by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. Anti-iron intratumoral injections [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%); 36.6C - 39.0C] (by CERAMIC needles) can suppress any tumors and large metastases. Anti-iron accurate slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control], anti-iron goat’s milk diet and anti-iron drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide can neutralize any micro-metastases. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/37136.php ; http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/250231.php ; http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/world/breast-can... ; http://www.encognitive.com/node/2789 ; http://encognitive.com/node/18552 ; http://encognitive.com/node/18553 ; http://www.encognitive.com/node/18824 ; EnCognitive.COM & Vadim Shapoval
Answer by Shapoval
Otto Warburg and Somatic Evolution. The prime cause of cancer. Cancer Cells and Normal Cells. According to Dr. Otto Warburg, there are prime and secondary causes of diseases. For example, the prime cause of the plague is the plague bacillus, but secondary causes of the plague are filth, rats, and the fleas that transfer the plague bacillus from rats to man. Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. Almost anything can cause cancer. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. The prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen (oxidation of sugar) in normal body cells by fermentation of sugar. All normal body cells are thus obligate aerobes, whereas all cancer cells are partial anaerobes. Cancer should be interpreted as a type of mitochondrial disease. The multistep process of carcinogenesis is often described as Somatic Evolution. The transition from normal tissue to invasive cancer is a multistep, multipath process in which increasingly malignant cellular populations emerge over time generally coincident with accumulating genomic mutations. According to The Old Testament and The Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer (Iron Conception), any human cell should be interpreted: 1) as a society of atoms and molecules; 2) as a society of organelles; 3) as a society of dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that have certain local magnetic contacts. An atom is the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are the chemical units of cell structure. Atoms form molecules when two or more are bonded together. The human body contains many different organs. Cells also have a set of little organs, called organelles. Cancer works by intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles that can chaotically distort DNA and shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields; can affect intracellular molecules and organelles. Cancer is intracellular superpara-ferri-ferromagnetic 'infection'. Oncologists must beat cancer by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/38197/ ; http://www.encognitive.com ; http://www.encognitive.com/node/2789 ; ENCOGNITIVE.COM & Vadim Shapoval
Answer by Shapoval
What are the similarities and differences between cancer cells and normal cells? Any cancer cells are cells with numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any normal cells are cells with non-numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any cell (any bacterium, any virus) contains dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. This is similarity. See: 'Iron Chelators for Cancer Therapy and Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer'. Observations that rapid neoplastic cell proliferation requires iron have led to the understanding that some iron chelators may be useful against cancer. Researchers endeavor to develop more effective iron chelators for cancer therapy. Chelation is a very effective way to treat heavy-metal poisoning. Since the 1970s, iron chelation therapy (the removal of excess iron from the body with special drugs) has been used as an alternative to regular phlebotomy to treat excess iron stores in people with hemochromatosis. The goal of iron chelation therapy is to prevent iron-mediated injury to cells. Researchers can't beat cancer by iron chelators because: 1) researchers invent ultra-complicated iron chelators; 2) researchers mix anti-cancer iron chelation therapy with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. According to the Ferromagnetic Theory-2006 of Cancer (Iron Conception), any tumor cells are cells with numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles (any normal cells are cells with non-numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles). Researchers must beat cancer (a subtle iron disease) by non-complicated iron chelators of The Old Testament: 1) intratumoral injections [sulfur (2%) + olive oil (98%); 36.6C – 39.0C] (by ceramic needles) [suppression of tumors and large metastases]; 2) accurate slow blood loss (even 75%) [hemoglobin control] (neutralization of micro-metastases); 3) goat’s milk diet and anti-iron drinking water containing hydrogen sulfide (neutralization of micro-metastases). http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/35502/ ; http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/38197/ ; http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/45448/ ; http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/69048/ ; http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/opinions/77000/ ; http://www.encognitive.com/node/2789 ; ENCOGNITIVE.COM & Shapoval
Answer by Shapoval
Difference between Tumor Cells and Normal Cells. Contact inhibition is the natural process of arresting cell growth when two or more cells come into contact with each other. Contact inhibition controls cell growth by allowing cells to replicate as old cells die but keeps unnecessary tissues from forming in their place. Normal cells have their own identity and obey the rule of contact inhibition. Normal cells adhere to each other and expire at the end of their life cycles. Tumor cells typically lose these properties and thus grow in an uncontrolled manner even when in contact with neighboring cells. Tumor cells do not follow the rules of contact inhibition, adherence and self-destruction (apoptosis, programmed cell death). Usually, tumor cell contain faulty DNA and chromosomes (some chromosomes may be duplicated or deleted). Tumor cells spread through the body via the lymphatic and circulatory systems. Clearly, tumor cells evade the immune system. Unlike normal cells that are specialized, tumor cells are non-specialized and do not contribute to the functioning of a body part. Normal cells have specialized behaviors and serve a purpose. Tumor cells have lost their specialized function. The first tumor cells (in the human body) are not very malignant cells; subsequent (mature) tumor cells are extremely malignant cells. Ordinarily, old normal cells undergo apoptosis, a series of enzymatic reaction that lead to the death of the cell. Normal cells will self-destruct if genetic / chromosomal abnormalities are found. Tumor cells fail to undergo apoptosis. Normal cells divide about 50 times and then stop dividing and die. Tumor cells can enter the cell cycle repeatedly, and in this way, they are potentially immortal. According to the Ferromagnetic Theory of Cancer / Carcinogenesis / Oncogenesis / Tumorigenesis (Iron Conception), any tumor cells are cells with numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any normal cells are cells with non-numerous intracellular superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Any cancer and ALS work by these nanoparticles. Tumor cells (cells with these nanoparticles; excessively negatively charged cells) do not follow the rules of contact inhibition and adherence. Enzyme activity can be affected by these nanoparticles (immortality of tumor cells). The immune system does not identify these nanoparticles within cellular organelles (the immune system can’t distinguish between dia-, para-, superpara-, ferri- and ferromagnetic micro- and nano-objects). These nanoparticles can chaotically-anarchically distort DNA and shift chromosomes by local magnetic fields (mistakes in DNA; chromosomal faults; deformed mitoses; non-specialization and ugliness of tumor cells). Oncologists-clinicians must beat cancer (a subtle iron disease) by non-complicated anti-iron methods of The Old Testament http://www.encognitive.com/node/add/simpleanswer/2789 ; Vadim Shapoval
Answer by Shapoval
Cancer, by definition, is a disease of the genes. A gene is a small part of DNA, which is the master molecule of the cell. Genes make "proteins," which are the ultimate workhorses of the cells. It is these proteins that allow our bodies to carry out all the many processes that permit us to breathe, think, move, etc.
Throughout people's lives, the cells in their bodies are growing, dividing, and replacing themselves. Many genes produce proteins that are involved in controlling the processes of cell growth and division. An alteration (mutation) to the DNA molecule can disrupt the genes and produce faulty proteins. This causes the cell to become abnormal and lose its restraints on growth. The abnormal cell begins to divide uncontrollably and eventually forms a new growth known as a "tumor" or neoplasm (medical term for cancer meaning "new growth").
In a healthy individual, the immune system can recognize the neoplastic cells and destroy them before they get a chance to divide. However, some mutant cells may escape immune detection and survive to become tumors or cancers.
Tumors are of two types, benign or malignant. A benign tumor is not considered cancer. It is slow growing, does not spread or invade surrounding tissue, and once it is removed, it doesn't usually recur. A malignant tumor, on the other hand, is cancer. It invades surrounding tissue and spreads to other parts of the body. If the cancer cells have spread to the surrounding tissues, then, even after the malignant tumor is removed, it generally recurs.
A majority of cancers are caused by changes in the cell's DNA because of damage due to the environment. Environmental factors that are responsible for causing the initial mutation in the DNA are called carcinogens, and there are many types.
There are some cancers that have a genetic basis. In other words, an individual could inherit faulty DNA from his parents, which could predispose him to getting cancer. While there is scientific evidence that both factors (environmental and genetic) play a role, less than 10% of all cancers are purely hereditary. Cancers that are known to have a hereditary link are breast cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer. Besides genes, certain physiological traits could be inherited and could contribute to cancers. For example, inheriting fair skin makes a person more likely to develop skin cancer, but only if they also have prolonged exposure to intensive sunlight.
There are several different types of cancers:
Carcinomas are cancers that arise in the epithelium (the layers of cells covering the body's surface and lining the internal organs and various glands). Ninety percent of human cancers fall into this category. Carcinomas can be subdivided into two types: adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop in an organ or a gland, while squamous cell carcinomas refer to cancers that originate in the skin.
Melanomas also originate in the skin, usually in the pigment cells (melanocytes).
Sarcomas are cancers of the supporting tissues of the body, such as bone, muscle and blood vessels.
Cancers of the blood and lymph glands are called leukemias and lymphomas respectively.
Gliomas are cancers of the nerve tissue.
Normal cell division. A cell grows a bit larger then divides into 2 cells.
Once a child grows to adulthood, the size of the body no longer increases. However, our bodies go through a lot of wear and tear, both inside and outside. Worn-out cells constantly need to be replaced, so cell division still takes place, but more slowly. An obvious "outside" change is the tiny bits of dead skin flaking off as the skin constantly renews itself.
Although our bodies' cells continue to divide to replace worn-out cells, this happens in a very ordered, systematic way. The reason is that each cell carries genetic instructions that regulate how fast the cell should grow and divide and when the cell should die. A balance between cells growing and dying keeps our bodies functioning normally.
When cell growth goes out of control
Cell growths can be classified as either benign or malignant.
Sometimes a cell starts to grow without regard for the normal balance between cell growth and death, and a small, harmless (or benign), lump of cells will form. A benign growth can occur in any part of the body, including the prostate, skin, or intestine.
In other cases, a cell may grow and divide with complete disregard for the needs and limitations of the body. Cells that have this aggressive behaviour are called malignant. They have the potential to grow into large masses or spread to other areas of the body. More commonly, a mass of such cells is called a cancer. When clumps of these cells spread to other parts of the body, they are metastases. A cancer that continues to grow can eventually overwhelm and destroy the part of the body or particular organ where it is located.
Tumor cells vary from normal cells in several basic ways. First, the division of normal cells is tightly regulated by special cell signals. With tumor cells, it’s as if the signals are no longer produced or perhaps they are no longer received.
Research involving cells is often accomplished by removing the cells from an individual and growing them in a sterile dish with the nutrients required for their survival. Growing cells for research use is termed “cell culture”. Just by watching normal cells in cell culture it is obvious that their division is regulated by something. Normal cells in culture grow until the bottom of their dish is carpeted with the cell. The layer is only 1 cell thick. Once this density is reached, they stop dividing because there is no more space. If one cell dies, an adjacent one will divide to fill in the space. Additionally, normal cells will divide a certain number of times after which time, the division process halts. There are a certain pre-determined number of generations that may be produced and then there is no more dividing. Eventually, the entire culture will die.
With tumor cells, it’s a completely different story. Tumor cells will divide over and over, time after time; forever if supplied with nutrients. With enough time, tumor cells in culture will become a piled up mess. They lack order to their growth. It is as though tumor cells lose have lost the capacity to follow the rules and they divide (proliferate) out of control.
A second major difference between normal cells and tumor cells is that normal cells perform a special function or duty for the body. Healthy cells have specialized behaviors and serve a purpose. For example, lung cells have a specialized duty to perform while cells of cardiac tissue have a very different one. Normal cells taken from different tissues even have very different appearances. Tumor cells have a different appearance than normal cells taken from the tissue they are derived from. This is due to the fact that they have lost their specialized function.
Differentiation is the term given to describe the specialized function a given cell has. Differentiation and proliferation are closely tied together. In general, a cell that proliferates at a high rate loses some of its specialized function. The problem is, it really doesn't have time to perform a specific function since its too busy dividing. Cells that perform a highly specific function (i.e. differentiated) have a lower rate of proliferation. Researchers are studying the possibility of making tumor/cancer cells differentiated so they might lose their ability to proliferate continuously. In theory, this would cause the tumor to stop growing.
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