Auricular Acupuncture in the Treatment of Cocaine/Crack Abuse: A Review of the Efficacy...


DRUG abuse
MEDICINE -- Research

Abstract:The United Kingdom has had a significant increase in addiction to and use of cocaine among 16–29-year olds from 6% in 1998 to 10% in 2000. In 2000, the United Kingdom had the highest recorded consumption of "recent use" cocaine in Europe, with 3.3% of young adults. Acupuncture is quick, inexpensive,and relatively safe, and may establish itself as an important addiction service in the future.To select investigations that meet the inclusion criteria and critically appraise them in order to answer the question: "Is acupuncture effective in the treatment of cocaine addiction?" The focus shall then be directedtoward the use of the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol as the interventionand the selection of sham points for the control group.The ARRC database was accessed from Trina Ward (M. Phil. student) at Thames Valley University. AMED, MEDLINE® and Embase were also accessed along with "hand" searching methods at the British library.People addicted to either cocaine or crack cocaine as their main addiction, needle-acupuncture, single-double-blinded process, randomized subjects, a reference group incorporatinga form of sham points. Exclusion criteria: use of moxibustion, laser acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nervestimulation (TENS) electroacupuncture or conditions that did not meet the inclusion criteria.The criteria set by ter Riet, Kleijnen and Knipschild (in 1990); Hammerschlag and Morris (in 1990); Koes, Bouter and van der Heijden (in 1995), were modified into one set of criteria consisting of27 different values.Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. All studies scored over 60 points indicating a relatively adequate methodology quality. The mean was 75 andthe standard deviation was 6.80. A linear regression analysis did not yield a statistically significant association(= 6,= 0.11).This review could not confirm that acupuncture was an effective...

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