How Diseases and Mental Illnesses are Created

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DSM: A Psychiatric Hoax. “The so called Diagnostic and Statistical Manual is really anything but diagnostic or statistical for that matter. ” --Dr. Moira Dolan, M.D., Internal Medicine Physician

“What it is, is a book that contains thousands of symptoms that have a number to it. When you bill the insurance company, you can’t say the word, you’ve got to say the number. And they have numbers for the most ridiculous things. Like arguing with your mother, or peeing in the bed, or arguing with your sister.” --Dr. Lawrence Hooper M.D., Family Practitioner.

“So, the DSM is basically an arbitrary classification of thoughts, moods and behavior decided upon by a committee of psychiatrists who are picked by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).” --Dr. Ron Leifer, M.D., Psychiatrist

“They create this cluster disease and they get together and they vote. Is this a disease? All in favor say ‘aye.” If they have a majority vote, or however they vote, they vote on this cluster of normal systems of normal behaviors together, and they create these diseases.” --- Dr. Julian Whitaker, M.D., Doctor, Author & Lecturer

“Each volume has grown by fifteen or twenty new ‘disorders, diseases.’ And, every time they have a patient in the office, they tell you that this new invented disease is a real disease. And that’s the way they make a patient, out of a normal person, out of a normal child, out of a normal infant, even. ” --Dr. Fred Baughman, Jr., M.D., Pediatric Neurologist

“What you have in psychiatry is a pseudoscience. It’s not scientific at all. It is a diagnosis of fabrication. It’s a fabricated illness. So now you have a psychiatrist wearing the mantle of M.D., but it’s a pseudo mantle, because he doesn’t do tests, he doesn’t do blood tests, he doesn’t do physical exams.” -- Dr. Julian Whitaker, M.D., Doctor, Author & Lecturer

“If we just stop here and we step outside the biological brain disease model and we look at the actual facts and the actual data, there are no facts and data supporting the brain disease model and there are no facts and data supporting many treatments and many things that psychiatrists claim.” --Dr. Colin Andrew Ross, M.D., Psychiatrist

“There is not one shred of credible evidence that any respectable scientist would consider valid demonstrating that anything that psychiatrists call ‘mental illness’ are brain diseases or biochemical imbalances. It’s all fraud.” --Dr. Ron Leifer, M.D., Psychiatrist

“It’s bogus that you can even accurately identify who has the behavior of schizophrenia. It’s bogus that you can tag it to genes. It’s bogus that you can detect those genes through any kind of test. So the whole thing is basically bogus.” --Dr. Colin Andrew Ross, M.D., Psychiatrist

“So we can theoretically find a way to drug every set of symptoms that’s different from what we think should be normal. So, we could have hundreds of different situations and diagnoses in the future and which we are attempting to drug. So you just extrapolate that over a couple of generations and it could be the fall of our civilization.” Dr. Ty Colbert, Ph.D, Clinical Psychologist

“We’re spending millions, billions on the totally fraudulent contrivances of psychiatry.” --Dr. Fred Baughman, Jr., M.D., Pediatric Neurologist

“To me this is a house of cards and you can take off one or two cards at the top or you can knock over the whole thing. I prefer knocking over the whole thing.” --Dr. Thomas Szasz, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus

Insight

APA: American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the most influential world-wide. Its some 36,000 members are mainly American but some are international. The association publishes various journals and pamphlets, as well as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM. The DSM codifies psychiatric conditions and is used world-wide as a key guide to diagnosing disorders.

The abbreviation 'APA' is also in common and similar usage by the American Psychological Association and their 'APA style guide' for journal articles.

History

At a meeting in 1844 in Philadelphia, 13 superintendents and organizers of insane asylums and hospitals formed the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), which later became the American Psychiatric Association in 1921. The group included Thomas Kirkbride creator of the asylum model which was used throughout the United States.

The Association was Incorporated in the District of Columbia in 1927.

The APA emblem, dating to 1890, became more officially adopted from 1921 - a round medallion with a purported facial likeness of Benjamin Rush and 13 stars over his head to represent the 13 founders of the organization. The outer ring contains the words "American Psychiatric Association 1844." Rush's name and an M.D. [1]

In 1948, APA formed a small task force to create a new standardized psychiatric classification system. This resulted in the 1952 publication of the first DSM. In 1965 a new task force of 10 people developed DSM-II, published in 1968. DSM-III was published in 1980, after a larger process involving some 600 clinicians. The book was now 500 pages long, including many more disorders, and it sold nearly half a million copies. APA published a revised DSM-III-R in 1987 and DSM-IV in 1994, the latter selling nearly a million copies by the end of 2000. DSM-IV-TR with minor revisions was published in 2000. APA is currently developing and consulting on a DSM-V planned for around 2011.

The assembly membership voted against a further proposed name change in 2002, to the American Psychiatric Medical Association [2] amidst increasing concern to differentiate themselves from clinical psychologists.

Organization and Membership

APA is led by a President (currently Pedro Ruiz) and a Board of Trustees with an Executive Committee.

APA reports [3] that its membership is comprised primarily of medical specialists who are qualified, or in the process of becoming qualified, as psychiatrists. The basic eligibility requirement is completion of a residency program in psychiatry accredited by the Residency Review Committee for Psychiatry of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPS(C)), or the American Osteopathic Association (AOA). Applicants for membership must also hold a valid medical license (with the exception of medical students and residents) and provide one reference who is an APA member.

APA holds an annual conference attended by a US and international audience.

APA is made up of some 75 district associations throughout the US[4]

Theoretical Position

APA can generally be considered to reflect mainstream, particularly US, psychiatry. In the past it has been predominantly associated with psychodynamic approaches, or the approach exemplified by Adolf Meyer, but more recently has become more associated with a biomedical approach also known as biopsychiatry.

The DSM is currently intended to be atheoretical, having moved away from psychodynamic theories to be more widely accepted, and is proposed to not be committed to a particular theorized etiology for mental disorders. The criteria for many of the mental disorders have been expanded and involve a checklist of so-called 'Feighner Criteria' to try and capture the varying sets of features which would be necessary to diagnose a particular disorder.

Publications and campaigns

APA position statements[5] and practice guidelines[6] and description of its core diagnostic manual the DSM[7] are published.

APA publishes several journals[8] focused on different areas of psychiatry, for example, academic, clinical practice, or news.

APA recently launched a health campaign[9] with a new PR approach[10]

Notable figures

* Adolf Meyer rose to prominence as the president of the American Psychiatric Association and was one of the most influential figures in psychiatry in the first half of the twentieth century.

* Robert Spitzer was a key figure in the development of later editions of the DSM.

* Donald Ewen Cameron is best known for his mind and behavior controlling work for the CIA. Cameron was President of the APA in 1952-1953.

Controversies

Controversies have related to Anti-psychiatry and disability rights campaigners, who regularly protest at American Psychiatric Association offices or meetings. In 2003, activists from MindFreedom International staged a 21-day hunger strike, protesting at a perceived unjustified biomedical focus and challenging APA to provide evidence of the widespread claim that mental disorders are due to chemical imbalances in the brain. APA published a position statement in response[11] and the two organizations exchanged views on the evidence.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, activists campaigned against the DSM classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder, protesting at APA offices and at annual meetings from 1970 to 1973. In 1973 the Board of Trustees voted to remove homosexuality as a disorder category from the DSM, a decision ratified by a small majority (58%) of the general APA membership the following year. A category of "sexual orientation disturbance" was introduced in its place in 1974. A lesser degree of controversy has continued in regard to this and subsequent categories of "ego-dystonic homosexuality" and "gender identity disorder".[1]

There was controversy when it emerged that US psychologists and psychiatrists were helping interrogators in Guantanamo and other US facilities to torture the prisoners there. The American Psychiatric Association released a policy statement that psychiatrists should not take a direct part in interrogation of particular prisoners [2] but could "offer general advice on the possible medical and psychological effects of particular techniques and conditions of interrogation, and on other areas within their professional expertise."