DNA-Human Genome

The Genetics of Illness and Disease

What are the forces shaping who we are, how we live, and how we act? Are we shaped primarily by our environment, or by our genes? These very old questions form the basis of the "nature-nurture" debate. Increasingly, we are told that research has confirmed the importance of genetic factors influencing psychiatric disorders, personality, intelligence, sexual orientation, criminality, and so on.

DNA - Human Genome


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical inside the nucleus of all cells that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms. A DNA molecule consists of two strands that wrap around each other to resemble a twisted ladder. The sides are made of sugar and phosphate molecules. The “rungs” are made of nitrogen-containing chemicals called bases. Each strand is composed of one sugar molecule, one phosphate molecule, and a base. Four different bases are present in DNA - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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